Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus Lowe, 1834) is a fish belonging to the family Serranidae.
The species is hermaphroditic proterogina therefore in the same individual, in the gonads, coexist male and female gametes. The latter ripen earlier and groupers are born with female sexual function and then assume masculine features when they reach 10-12 years of age and a length of about 80 cm. The large specimens are therefore exclusively males.
Dusky Grouper was the subject in recent years, the indiscriminate hunting has led to the disappearance of the species in many Italian coastal areas. As males, bigger is often set at greater depths, at risk of catching predominantly females are exposed. This creates a dangerous imbalance between the sexes that endangers the survival of the species. Most people survive today almost exclusively in protected marine areas. Currently the species is considered endangered and has been included in the Red List of the IUCN classification with EN-Endangered.
Commonly she lives in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth between 10 and 50 meters (pushing up to 200), often near rocky seabed rich in caves and crevices. Younger live near the coast. It is however also met in the Eastern Atlantic and the western Indian Ocean, the British Isles and to Mozambique and Madagascar. In the ocean western Atlantic in southern Brazil and Uruguay to Argentina.