The Sand Steenbras (Lithognathus Mormoryus) belongs to the class Osteichthyes, subclass Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, suborder Percoidei, family Sparidae. Sand Steenbras Lithognathus Mormoryus
It is a beautiful elegant silver-colored fish with six very dark and highlighted vertical bands and an equal number of narrower and less evident bands, the body is long and compressed laterally, the profile is high and rounded. The lips are fleshy and the teeth are arranged in different rows; it can reach a length of 30 cm. and a weight that rarely reaches one kilogram. It has gregarious habits and we find it in small groups in a depth mixed with rock and sand at a depth that hardly exceeds 20 meters.
It is a common fish all over the Mediterranean and in the warm waters of the eastern Atlantic, it prefers coastal areas even reaching a few meters from the water’s edge.
The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Periformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies. The sheepshead, scup and red seabream are species in this family. Most sparids are deep-bodied compressed fish with a small mouth separated by a broad space from the eye, a single dorsal fin with strong spines and soft rays, a short anal fin, long pointed pectoral fins and rather large firmly attached scales. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores.
There are hermaphrodites in the Sparidae. Protogyny and protandry appear sporadically through this lineage of fish. Simultaneous hermaphrodites and bi-directional hermaphrodites do not appear as much since Sparidae are found in shallower waters. Species of fish that express a hermaphroditic condition usually “lack a genetic hardwire”, therefore ecological factors play a role in sex determination.
Most species possess grinding, molar-like teeth. Some of the species, such as Polysteganus undulosus, have been subject to everfishing, or exploitation beyond sustainable recovery.
Sand Steenbras Lithognathus Mormoryus