Serranidi Serranidae Perciformes Cernia Perchia Anthias Grouper
Serranidae is a family of marine bony fish belonging to the order Perciformes which includes 530 species of fish commonly known as Serranidi.
Distribution and habitat
These fish are cosmopolitan and rather thermophilic and therefore present in temperate and warm waters of all the seas, while they are rare in cold regions. In the Mediterranean Sea it is common in Italian waters are nine species. Populate mainly coastal waters, up to the plane circalittoral, there are few batifile species. They are most common on the rocky bottom.
Although the family includes species of different sizes, shapes and colors, there are some typical features found in all serranids: Typical examples are the Grouper brown or perch, common in Italian seas. The mouth is large and protraibile, armed with conical teeth implanted into more serious. The body is generally robust, with a long dorsal fin, partly thorny and partly soft rays, the anal fin is shorter and also carries some spiny rays, the caudal fin may be rounded, truncated or strongly lobed and thread-like (as in Anthias or Variola). The preopercle brings some spines or denticles.
The scales are small and ctenoid. The liveries are variable, usually much camouflage and so on tones of brown with spots, stripes or bands variously arranged, often useful to distinguish the various species; many species, especially tropical, however, show vivid reds, yellows and blues that sometimes, as in the various Anthias, Cephalopholis, Variola, etc. They may predominate and compose magnificent liveries. Sizes range from a few cm of many Serranus to more than two meters of the giant grouper indopacifici seas.
All serranids are carnivores: they feed on fish, cephalopods and invertebrates.
Many serranids are hermaphrodites and undergo sex reversal; some species are hermaphrodites proterandrous if born males and females become with age, others are proterogynous they are juveniles to be female. During the transition from one sex to some American Serranus they are able to fertilize, extremely rare fish. The eggs and larvae are pelagic always.