The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus Lowe, 1834) is a fish belonging to the family Serranidae. Cernia Bruna Epinephelus marginatus Dusky Grouper Serranidae
Habitat and distribution
Commonly lives in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth between 10 and 50 meters (pushing up to 200), often near rocky seabed rich in caves and crevices. Younger birds live near the coast. It is however also met in the Eastern Atlantic and the western Indian Ocean, the British Isles and to Mozambique and Madagascar. In the ocean western Atlantic in southern Brazil and Uruguay to Argentina.
Large, up to 140-150 centimeters for even 60 kg of weight. Long-lived (even 50 years with estimated maximum age of 61 years). It is brown in color with lighter patches, basically darker in older specimens; Typical clear stains around the eye.
Solitary, territorial, rather reserved, even if a certain animal’s curiosity is documented.
The fish is a hermaphrodite proterogino, which becomes male around the age of twelve. The large specimens are therefore all male. Breeding takes place during the summer.
It feeds mainly on mollusks, crustaceans and other fish.
In the Mediterranean Sea live other species of Epinephelus marginatus as well as E. E. aeneus, E. costae, E. caninus. E. marginatus is recognized by the other because of the margin of the caudal fin rounded convexly to the lateral light stripes on the head and the typical brown color, more gray in the other species. The Mediterranean grouper family, however, is complemented by two other species of groupers different kind: Polyprion americanus and Mycteroperca rubra, known respectively as wreckfish, and red grouper.